ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Optical Emission Spectroscopy): quantitative determination of the constituent elements, analysis of trace elements.
HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography): quantitative and qualitative determination of substances.
XRPD (X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy): study of crystalline solids and structural modifications, recognition and quantitative determination of the crystalline phases.
TGA, DTA, DSC (Thermogravimetrical analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry): determination of the thermal stability of the materials, of the decomposition mechanism and kinetics, purity and/or presence of polymorphs or pseudo polymorphs.
UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy): quantitative determinations of actives in solution, colorimetric and stability studies of solids and solutions.
FT-IR-ATR (Infrared Spectroscopy): qualitative and quantitative determination of substances both in solution and in solid phase.
Granulometry (Laser Diffraction Analysis): determination of the particle size of both solid and suspended samples, analysis of the dimensional distribution.
Optical Microscopy (Stereomicroscopy): morphological study of surfaces and three-dimensional observations of solid samples.
Electron microscopy (FE-SEM/EDX and TEM): study of the morphology and microstructure of samples, semi-quantitative determination of the constituent elements.